Application Security Terminology

Glossary

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Types of Data Breaches

A data breach is when confidential information is exposed by intentional or unintentional means.

The five most common types of data breaches:

  1. Denial-of-Service – Denial-of-Service attacks occur when a website is overwhelmed with requests, which blocks other users from the site. 
  2. Malware – Any type of virus, including worms and Trojans, is malware.
  3. Ransomware – Ransomware is often, but not exclusively, used on businesses that need access to time sensitive data, such as hospitals. A hacker gains control of the company system and locks it from use. A ransom note is left within the virus. The company or user is extorted to pay money for data to be restored or their data is destroyed. 
  4. Password attacks – Password attacks are combination of brute force attacks that are used to gain access to insecure passwords. A hacker uses a program that tries multiple passwords to get access to a user’s data until a password work. 
  5. Phishing – Email or phone calls that seem official to gain access or personal information is called phishing. They frequently take the guise of known, credible entities—such as a person’s bank. Various levels of misrepresentation to outright deception are employed to defraud or gain information.

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