When I got started in computer security, back in 1995, there wasn’t much to it — but there wasn’t much to web applications themselves. If you wanted to be a web application developer, you had to know a few basic skills. These are the kinds of things a developer would need to build a somewhat complex website back in the day:
- ISP/Service Provider
- Switching and routing with ACLs
- Berkley Database
It was a pretty long list of things to get started, but if you were determined and persevered, you could learn them in relatively short order. Ideally you might have someone who was good at networking and host security to help you out if you wanted to focus on the web side, but doing it all yourself wasn’t unheard of. It was even possible to be an expert in a few of these, though it was rare to find anyone who knew all of them.
Things have changed dramatically over the 20 years that I’ve been working in security. Now this is what a fairly common stack and provisioning technology might consist of:
- Amazon EC2
- Amazon AMI
- SSH keys
- Duosec 2FA
- Relational Database
- Amazon Glacier
- WordPress CMS
- WordPress Plugins
- API to WordPress.org for updates
- API to anti-spam filter ruleset
- API to merchant processor
- SSL/TLS Certificates
- Certificate Authority
- Google Analytics
- Conversion tracking
Unlike before, there is literally no one on earth who could claim to understand every aspect of each of those things. They may be familiar with the concepts, but they can’t know all of these things all at once, especially given how quickly technologies change. Since there is no one who can understand all of those things at once, we have seen the gradual death of the full-stack developer.
It stands to reason, then, that there has been a similar decline in the numbers of full-stack security experts. People may know quite a bit about a lot of these technologies, but when it comes down to it, there’s a very real chance that any single security person will become more and more specialized over time — it’s simply hard to avoid specialization, given the growing complexity of modern apps. We may eventually see the death of the full-stack security person as well as a result.
If that is indeed the case, where does this leave enterprises that need to build secure and operationally functional applications? It means that there will be more and more silos where people will handle an ever-shrinking set of features and functionality in progressively greater depth. It means that companies that can augment security or operations in one or more areas will be adopted because there will be literally no other choice; failure to use a diverse and potentially external expertise in security/operations will ensure sec-ops failure.
At its heart, this is a result of economic forces – more code needs to be delivered and there are fewer people who understand what it’s actually doing. So outsource what you can’t know since there is too much for any one person to know about their own stack. This leads us back to the Internet Services Supply Chain problem as well – can you really trust your service providers when they have to trust other services providers and so on? All of this highlights the need for better visibility into what is really being tested, as well as the need to find security that scales and to implement operational hardware and software that is secure by default.